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Category Archives: Field Notes

Taking Stock of Carbon Footprints: A Visual Journey

June 28th, 2013

by Ram Ganeshan

President Obama, on June 25th, laying out America’s climate policy for the future said:

“So the question now is whether we will have the courage to act before it’s too late. And how we answer will have a profound impact on the world that we leave behind not just to you, but to your children and to your grandchildren. As a President, as a father, and as an American, I’m here to say we need to act.”

This post is about taking stock of carbon footprint of things big and small – countries, cities, industrial sectors, firms, products, and supply chains. Through an interactive visual, you can get a sense of carbon footprints of things big or small.


Category Archives: Field Notes

Zithromax For Sale

January 18th, 2011

by Ram Ganeshan

I recently flew Southwest Zithromax For Sale, from Baltimore to LaGuardia to meet up with a few friends in Queens, NY (the little less than the $100 for a one-way fare was cheaper, and the 40-minute flight faster than the Acela). The flight was barely half full, Zithromax coupon. Japan, craiglist, ebay, overseas, paypal, I was convinced Southwest was losing money on this flight especially with the cabin seemingly full of tourists likely paying “web only” $100 fares like myself. Really, Zithromax samples. Low dose Zithromax, What my research uncovered surprised me.

How much does it cost the world’s major airlines to fly a passenger a mile, Zithromax For Sale. How much money do they make from that passenger, generic Zithromax. Zithromax pictures, How full are their planes. Read on…

A little primer on airline economics.

Available Seat Miles (ASM): It is simply the number of seats multiplied by the distance they travel, Zithromax treatment. Zithromax wiki, So in a sense this is the capacity of the airline. Zithromax For Sale, The ASM on Southwest’s 137-seat Boeing 737 aircraft from Baltimore (BWI) to LaGuardia (LGA) – a 185-mile distance – is 137 x 185  = 25,345 seat-miles.

Revenue Passenger Miles (RPM): It is the number of passengers multiplied by the distance, Zithromax trusted pharmacy reviews. Zithromax dose, For the BWI-LGA leg above if 100 people traveled on the leg, then the RPM for the flight is 100 x 185 = 18, order Zithromax from United States pharmacy, Online buy Zithromax without a prescription, 500 passenger miles.

Load Factor: It is the ratio of RPM to ASM – on average tells you how “full” the planes are, Zithromax price. Zithromax maximum dosage, For the BWI-LGA leg example above, the load factor is 18, Zithromax for sale, Zithromax images, 500/25,345 = 72.9%, cheap Zithromax no rx.

Airlines typically report these operating numbers on a yearly basis, Zithromax For Sale. Zithromax description, Southwest in 2009 had a capacity of 98,001.55 million seat-miles and a RPM of 74, taking Zithromax, Buy Zithromax online cod, 456.71 million passenger miles, yielding a load factor of 76%, where can i cheapest Zithromax online. Online buying Zithromax hcl, The following graphic plots the profit/loss of the airline against the load-factor (See Note 1).  Its interactive – mouse over/click on the graph to learn more, buy generic Zithromax. Zithromax without prescription, …more text after the graphic

Surprise, ordering Zithromax online. Zithromax For Sale, Surprise. Zithromax duration, Seems like airlines are equally likely to make a profit or a loss even if they are flying with high load factors. One way to think about this is to compute the cost and revenue of moving a seat a mile, order Zithromax no prescription. Zithromax online cod, The Cost per ASM (CASM) is simply the operating costs divided by the total ASM. Total Revenue per ASM (TRASM or RASM) is the revenue of moving a seat a mile – the total revenue divided by the total ASM, Zithromax from mexico. If TRASM is greater than CASM, the airline is making money moving a seat a mile, Zithromax For Sale. Where can i buy cheapest Zithromax online, The graphic above also shows the TRASM and CASM of some of the major airlines in the world. “The Gap” is the difference between the TRASM and the CASM, real brand Zithromax online. Kjøpe Zithromax på nett, köpa Zithromax online, If it is negative, the airline is making a loss, purchase Zithromax for sale. Zithromax mg, Filling the gap

For a given route network, increasing revenue comes down to increasing RPM (or load factor) and increasing “passenger yield” or the revenue per RPM (See Note 2), rx free Zithromax. Zithromax For Sale, Easier said than done – it involves the difficult task of managing the complex relationship between price, demand, capacity (ASM), and customer ticket-buying behavior. Zithromax long term, For example, on the BWI-LGA flight, Zithromax class, Buy Zithromax without prescription, the lowest price  (three weeks out) I could find on Southwest 5015 was a “Wanna Get Away” fare of $64, or about 34.59 cents to a mile. Southwest spends 10.29 cents a mile to move a seat so they are making 24.30 cents a mile even on a passenger paying the lowest fare. Even if everybody on the plane paid $64, they only have to fill a third of the plane to breakeven.  With many of its passengers paying the $178 “Anytime” fare and the $193 “Business Select” fare, an average 76% full flight is doing very well.

On the other hand, the cheapest fare on Southwest 3701 from Providence (PVD) to Las Vegas (LAV), a distance of 2363 miles, was $169 or 7.15 cents a mile, Zithromax For Sale. Southwest is actually losing 3.13 cents on each mile this passenger travels.  Even on a full flight, Southwest needs one in three passengers to pay the  $469 “Anytime” fare or the $493 “Business Select” fare just to breakeven. So managing yield is a delicate dance between passenger demand, how much passengers are paying, how far they are travelling, and how full the aircraft is.

The other side of the profit equation is cost containment. The airline business has high fixed costs – you have to lease planes, secure landing rights, pay the crew, etc. Zithromax For Sale, Revenue is generated only when planes are in the air so the strategy to reduce the cost per seat mile is to run a “lean” and efficient airline without compromising service or safety. Allegiant Air’s cheap but profitable strategy is to run infrequent flights from small towns to big tourist destinations in easy to maintain MD-80 aircraft. Southwest’s quick turnaround times – as much as 30 minutes faster than other airlines –saves them from leasing extra planes (See Note 3). We have all seen the self-check kiosks, vanishing leg-room (=more seats), and the lack of food service even on certain long-haul flights -- all trying to bring down CASM.

Next time you fly, find out how much you are paying per mile and compare it how much it costs the airline to fly you a mile to see if you have got yourself a deal. My $100 flight from BWI-LGA was not much of a deal was it, Zithromax For Sale. That $169 fare on Southwest 3701 – a killer deal, I’d say.

Contact: Ram Ganeshan via ram.ganeshan[at]mason.wm.edu or @RamGaneshan on Twitter

Shoumya Pradhan contributed to research for this post.


1. Data Sources: Company 10K, 20F, Annual reports; BTS; World Airline Report. Zithromax For Sale, Data is from 2009.

2. In addition to increasing traffic (RPM) and managing yield, there are other – often maligned -- revenue streams called “ancillary fees” like change of reservation or baggage fees (Delta raked in $681 million in fees just in the 2nd Quarter of 2010!) that will increase the revenue per passenger on any flight.

3. In 2009, Southwest had 2546 turnarounds everyday. 30 minutes saved on one of them is 1723 hours of extra flight time per day compared to other “legacy” airlines. Means fewer planes, more money.

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Category Archives: Field Notes

Buy Zithromax Without Prescription

November 28th, 2010

by Ram Ganeshan

The iPhone 4 Supply Chain Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, Next time you check email or browse your Facebook page on your iPhone 4, think about this: a symphony of hundreds of parts designed by a multitude of companies from three continents has made it happen.

This post follows the iPhone 4’s supply chain – its part suppliers, fabrication, and assembly. I have included an interactive graphic you can explore and learn more about how your iPhone 4 comes together, Zithromax interactions. Enjoy.

How a phone is designed (See Note 1)

The design and production of a phone is a complex process. Apart from the senior executives who sign off on the final product, phone design is a compromise between the industrial design team, the engineers, and the supply chain team, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. The industrial design team typically designs the “shell” of the phone – how it looks, Zithromax from canada, the materials used, and how it interacts with the customer. The engineers meanwhile design the “guts” of the phone – the hardware and the software. As you can imagine, there is a lot of back-and-forth between these teams (no points for guessing who wins these battles at Apple) to make certain that the mechanical and electro-mechanical parts in the “guts” work in harmony with the overall design of the phone, purchase Zithromax online no prescription. After the initial “virtual” design is complete, the engineering team generates a bill of materials. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, This is where the supply chain team steps in. They evaluate the bill of materials, Buy cheap Zithromax no rx, cost out the product, and working with the designers, engineers, and many of the suppliers, provide input to develop the final design that has the best combination of features and manufacturability, Zithromax blogs.

Many of the design decisions of the iPhone 4 stem from competitive pressures. When Verizon and Motorola’s Driod took a stab at iPhone 3GS for an inferior display, a lower resolution camera, Herbal Zithromax, and an inability to run parallel apps, Apple had to respond. Other decisions, like the stainless steel band sandwiched between two panels of engineered glass is the product of the genius of Jonathan Ive, head of Apple’s industrial design team, buy Zithromax no prescription.

I only wish I could be a fly on the wall as these teams argue for their positions, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. Given Apple and Steve Jobs’ design aesthetic, I suspect Jonathan Ive and his industrial design team weigh in heavily on the final product. For example, Zithromax overnight, the stainless steel housing in the Apple iPhone 4 is completely CNC machined and is much more expensive than any other manufacturing process. My guess is that the Apple supply chain team resisted the CNC machining process (probably recommended the casting process of the previous iPhone 3GS model), but got overruled because the precision-engineered case made the phone lighter and thinner and, yes, its stunning looks trumped any supply chain cost-containment concerns, after Zithromax. The supply chain team, however, scored a victory when it comes to sourcing components in the logic boards. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, Most of the major suppliers for the chips are the same as the iPhone 3GS model, and most of the chips are  “off-the-shelf” making it easier and cheaper to procure them and to execute production. Comprar en línea Zithromax, comprar Zithromax baratos, In fact, Apple’s consistently reliable & profitable operations has made their supply chain team led by its COO Tom Cook one of the most envied in the industry -- they develop and source from hundreds of suppliers from around the world; manage assembly contractors; set challenging production schedules and deliver better than most in their industry.

The process from design to production typically takes about ten months. Taking the design to market takes up the bulk of this schedule. This includes sourcing the components, canada, mexico, india, testing the phone, getting the phone approved by the FCC, and finally, No prescription Zithromax online, piloting dry runs in the factory to make sure the phone can be mass-produced. For a typical Christmas delivery, the design & engineering teams start working in January, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription.

Big-ticket items

While Apple does not reveal the components in its products or its suppliers, companies like iSuppli of El Segundo, CA, publish “tear down” reports that reveal the source and the estimated cost of many of the components (see Note 2), is Zithromax addictive.

The biggest design change from the iPhone 3GS and the most expensive part of the iPhone 4 is the 326 pixels per inch backlit LCD display which Apple markets as the “Retina Display.” According to Apple, the 326 pixels-per-inch density is so high that the eye cannot distinguish the individual pixels (hence “retina”). It costs $28.50 and is made by LG of Korea. Zithromax dangers, Toshiba, supplier to the previous 3GS model could also be a supplier of the display. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, It is unlikely that the design of the display will be changed for the next generation of the iPhone – the supply chain team has developed this supply base and large volume orders over multiple years would reduce the cost per display procured.

Apple’s Multi-touch technology lets you interact with the iPhone with your fingers. When you swipe, pinch, about Zithromax, or tap, a laminated panel on the iPhone’s surface reads these “gestures” and sends the signals to the Retina Display below it. The touch screen (costing $10) is made by three Taiwanese companies Balda/TPK (See Note 3), Where can i order Zithromax without prescription, Wintek, and Chimei Innolux (45%, 40%, and 15% of the volume respectively). Balda/TPK and Wintek were used before, buy Zithromax online no prescription. It is likely Apple is developing multiple sources to keep pace with the demand, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription.

The iPhone’s primary (5 MP with LED flash) and secondary (enabling the Face time application and one-upping the Droid) cameras (costing $10.75) are designed by Santa Clara, CA based OmiVision. The camera lens modules come from Taiwan’s Largan Precision and Genius Electonic. Zithromax photos, more text after the graphic...

Multimedia: The iPhone 4 Supply Chain

The following graphic is interactive –click on each of the components and the appropriate suppliers and costs will be highlighted. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, Mouse over supplier locations on the map to learn more about each of the suppliers. Click the bar chart for competitor pricing. Enjoy. It’s a little slow – it is on another server, Zithromax use. For a larger version of the graphic, click here.

The Little Details – The Logic Board

The biggest change in the “guts” of the phone is the Apple designed A4 processor (costing $10.75) which helps run all the software, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. It is capable of multi-tasking – you can listen to music as you browse the web at the same time. Effects of Zithromax, The chip along with the DRAM memory ($13), just like in the previous 3GS model, is made by Samsung of Korea. Samsung is a big winner in the iPhone 4 supply chain -- it also makes the flash memory ($27 for 16GB) on which your music, photos, buy cheap Zithromax, movies, and other data is stored.

When you turn the phone on the side, Zithromax cost, how do your photos, email, or web page turn with it. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, How does the iPhone sense a shake, twist, or a jab when you play games (see Steve Jobs play Jenga)?  Apple engineers use an accelerometer coupled with a gyroscope (the gyro is new in iPhone 4) from STMicroelectronics based in Geneva to sense movement. Together, they cost $3.25, Zithromax schedule, not bad for such cool sensors, eh.

Infineon, Buy Zithromax from canada, based in Germany, provides the baseband – chips that help you make voice and data calls (for $14.05). American companies TriQuint, SkyWorks, Intel, Zithromax canada, mexico, india, and the Japanese manufacturer Murata all provide radio frequency modules (totaling $8.25) to help send and receive data. Broadcom, based in Irvine CA provides the GPS, Zithromax pics, WiFi, and Bluetooth capabilities of the iPhone ($9.55); and Cirrus Logic of Dallas, TX provides chips that encode and decode audio ($1.15).

The parts may be inexpensive but considering Apple sold 39 million phones in the last year, even small components add up to big numbers for these suppliers, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. In all, iSuppli’s teardown estimates a total parts cost to be $187.51, is Zithromax safe.

Fab Taiwan

Low costs and backed by a robust national technology policy, Taiwan is a leading center for IC design, fabrication, Zithromax brand name, packaging, and testing. Some iPhone suppliers like Broadcom (the GPS/WiFi/Bluetooth chipset designer) are “fabless” i.e., they design but do not have the facilities to manufacture these chips. They rely on their foundry partner, buying Zithromax online over the counter, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation (TSMC) to fabricate their chips. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, Even those iPhone suppliers that have their own fabrication facilities like Texas Instruments, Dailog, Infenion, or Skyworks routinely contract chip manufacture to TSMC. Little wonder that TSMC is the largest chip foundry in the world. Even the parts required to assemble the logic board such as the “substrate” and “copper-clad laminates” (these are inputs to the familiar PCBs on which chips are placed) are sourced in Taiwan, Zithromax reviews, an island about twice the size of New Jersey.

They cannot make enough of it

All the parts for the iPhone eventually make their way to Foxconn’s (Apple’s assembly contractor) manufacturing complex in Shenzhen, China. While the major parts of the iPhone 4 -- chassis, glass panels, Zithromax no prescription, display, touch screen, and logic board fabrication are done by machines, Online Zithromax without a prescription, the final assembly is done by hand. Most likely workers are following a precise set of steps (put together by Apple’s design & engineering teams) to assemble the iPhones, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. Foxconn, a subsidiary of Hon Hai Precision Industry of Taiwan, assembles about 137,000 iPhones a day, Zithromax gel, ointment, cream, pill, spray, continuous-release, extended-release. That’s about 12.3 million a quarter, not enough to keep up with Apple’s most recent quarterly sales (Q3 of 2010) of 14.1 million iPhones.

Foxconn was in the news all Summer of 2010 for the spate of worker suicides in its Shenzhen facility related to work stress. Buy no prescription Zithromax online, Workers complained of long work hours and abusive superiors for meager pay (see Gizmodo’s expose with pictures). Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, Since then, Foxconn has responded with program’s to improve worker morale and a 30% increase in pay. Even with the 30% increase, with the average worker makes $176 a month.

Once the phones are put together, the iPhone is distributed via Apple’s own retail network, Zithromax from canadian pharmacy, wholesalers, resellers, and carriers in 89 countries in partnership with 166 carriers. Zithromax alternatives, …and one more thing

Here is a back-of-the-napkin calculation  (see Note 4) of the profits Apple makes on each iPhone:

Revenue per iPhone $629.65
Materials $187.51
Assembly Operations $6.54
Research & Development $17.00
Selling, General, & Administrative $53.52
Misc Costs (Distribution, Licensing, Warranties, Zithromax street price, etc.) $94.45
Profit before taxes $270.63

Apple sold 39.98 million phones last year. If $270.63 is in the ballpark, then Apple made $10.82 billion profit on the iPhone, Zithromax forum, 60% of the overall pre-tax profits of $18.38 billion. This is phenomenal considering the iPhone did not exist four years ago, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription.

Steve Jobs was quoted describing the Mac OS X's Aqua user interface: "We made the buttons on the screen look so good you'll want to lick them." It’s better than that. It seems Apple has no trouble having us pay $600 for an iPhone. It’s quality materials, precision manufacturing, buy Zithromax from mexico, and oh, if it adds to your steez, why not. Purchase Zithromax, Contact Ram Ganeshan at ram.ganeshan[at]mason.wm.edu or @RamGaneshan on Twitter

1. Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, The content for this section is based on my many interviews with industry insiders.

2. The information on components and their costs come from iSuppli’s teardown reports for the iPhone 4, Blackberry Torch, Motorola Droid, and Nokia N8.

While it is impossible to determine exact manufacturing locations for all the components from public sources, published reports and press briefings (unconfirmed by Apple) identify suppliers in many instances. For example, Taiwan’s Digitimes reports here on details of iPhone 4’s Taiwanese suppliers.

3, Buy Zithromax Without Prescription. Balda is a German company that holds a major stake in TPK. TPK is listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange (Stock Code 3673) but has manufacturing facilities in Xiamen, China. In all likelihood, the touch screens are made in the Xiamen facilities.

4. For the year Buy Zithromax Without Prescription, ending September 25, 2010, Apple sold 39.98 million iPhones and made $25.179 billion on them – that is $629.65 per phone sold. The cost of parts and assembly are from iSuppli’s estimates from teardown reports. Apple spent 2.7% of Sales on Research and Development and 8.5% on Selling, General, and Administrative Costs. So for every iPhone it averages out to $17 and $53.52 for R & D and SG & A respectively. From my own experience working with firms, I estimate the cost of logistics and distribution, returns management, and warranties, i.e., moving the components to China, phones from China to the stores (“shipping and handling”), paying for inventory, obsolescence, pilferage, fixing phones (given iPhone 4’s antennagate), etc., at about 10-20% of sales. I use 15% to get the $94.95 estimate, although I suspect it is a little bit more than that.

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Category Archives: Field Notes

Buy Retin-A Without Prescription

November 9th, 2010

by Ram Ganeshan

Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, I recently took my daughter to a birthday party at a local mall. Where can i find Retin-A online, Having a couple of hours to kill, I headed to the cramped and crowded Apple Store to checkout the new MacBook Air, order Retin-A online overnight delivery no prescription. Online buying Retin-A hcl, After succumbing to the allure of the iPod Touch and a quick coffee stop at Barnes and Noble’s Café, I settled in a comfortable sofa, Retin-A from mexico, Low dose Retin-A, like many others waiting, listening to the live piano music at the bright and airy Nordstrom that anchors the mall, Retin-A from canadian pharmacy. Retin-A reviews, I could not help wonder that this comfortable space sandwiched between Women’s Shoes and the make-up counters was a lot larger than the Apple store. How large the stores in the mall are and how effectively they use their space, buy Retin-A no prescription. Read on…do the results surprise you, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. Purchase Retin-A for sale, The attached graphic shows the size in square feet of popular mall stores and how much they sell in a year per square feet (See Notes 1 & 2 for information on calculations). I have also added a few other stores like Best Buy, effects of Retin-A, Retin-A without prescription, Wal-Mart, and Home Depot into the mix as a basis for comparison, no prescription Retin-A online. What is Retin-A, Most retailers use sales per square feet to measure how efficiently they use their retail space compared to their closest competitors. For example an average J, buy Retin-A online cod. Crew Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, store is about 6200 sq. Retin-A brand name, ft. and generates $573/sq, canada, mexico, india. Retin-A trusted pharmacy reviews, ft. while the Abercrombie & Fitch store is just over 7000 sq, taking Retin-A. ft, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. Retin-A mg, and generates sales of $489/ sq. ft, buy Retin-A without a prescription. Retin-A pics, Does this mean J. Crew is outperforming A & F, kjøpe Retin-A på nett, köpa Retin-A online. Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, It’s a little more complicated – they each stock different styles and have branded stores and cater to a different demographic (although there may be an overlap). Is Retin-A addictive, But at least based on this measure, J, is Retin-A safe. Where can i cheapest Retin-A online, Crew seems to be doing more with less. Costco generates $970 per sq, fast shipping Retin-A. My Retin-A experience, ft. with the average store size close to 142,000 sq, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. ft, purchase Retin-A online. Retin-A forum, while its biggest competitor Sam’s Club generates about $550 per sq. ft, after Retin-A. Retin-A price, with an average size of 132,000 sq, Retin-A australia, uk, us, usa. Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, ft. Discount Retin-A,

So you noticed. By far the best performing retailer is Apple, Retin-A from canada. Apple's report estimates an average store sales of $34.1 million, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. Retin-A recreational, With an average store size of 6,000 sq, Retin-A price, coupon. Where can i buy cheapest Retin-A online, ft., that translates to a productivity number of $5, Retin-A no prescription,683 per sq. ft.. According to Bloomberg, Apple’s marquee store on Fifth Avenue (the “Glass Cube”) does almost $350 million in sales in a year. Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, At 10,000 sq. ft. that’s $35,000 per square feet making it possibly the highest grossing retailer on 5th Avenue. Tiffany & Co. is probably the closest to Apple with their sales floor on 5th Avenue generating about $18,000 per sq. ft. (system-wide Tiffany & Co, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. averages to about $2600/sq. ft.)

When I picked up my six-year old from her party, she knew exactly where to go next – “Daddy lets learn how to make movies!!” Cha Ching. for Apple’s One-to-One service. No wonder…


1. Buy Retin-A Without Prescription, All store data are from 2008. The only exceptions are Apple and Best Buy for which I used 2010 data to reflect the sales of the iPhone & iPad.

2. Most of the data is readily available from a retailer’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. For example from Best Buy’s 2010 filing, we know that they have 1,192 stores in the USA with a total square footage of 42,488,000 sq. ft, Buy Retin-A Without Prescription. So the average store size is simply 42,488,000/1,192= 35,644 sq. ft. From the same 10K filing, the reported domestic sales are $37,314 million, so the sales per square feet is simply $37,314 million/42,488,000 = $878. Obviously not all the square footage is used for selling, -- some is used for inventory, administrative offices and such so the calculations reflect gross square footage. While approximate, these calculations provide insightful snapshots into retail space productivity.

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